EVDrive-Train™ Architecture

The EVDrive-Train™ Modular Scalable Power train Technology

Overview

The EVDrive-Train™ complete top-down system engineered architecture for vehicle powertrains is scalable for diverse range of applications and can deliver exceptional performance and efficiencies, sized from 35HP to over 800HP per wheel with proprietary AWD controls for multi powered wheel applications,  targeted for OEM and up-fitter conversions in a wide variety of applications.   Recently an EVD550 Drive sub-system (Module #1) based optimized EVDrive-Train™ set a new world record.  All of our EVDrive-Trains include standard features like liquid-cooling, sealed IP67 drive sub-systems, multi-rate charging, regenerative charging during braking/coasting (dynamic input control for regen as well), and data logging.  Many optional features  are possible, such as cell modem tracking/data telemetry, GPS REX control prediction, traction/stability control, etc., found on some OEM hybrid electric vehicles. See below for some additional information.  Cars, motorcycles, vans, trucks, buses, RV’s can be converted to equal or better performance using these advanced Series Hybrid electric drive systems.

Shown on the right are our 7 modules that comprise a complete EVDrive-Train system.  These complete systems are engineered from a “3 layer stack” of both in-house developed technology and off-the-shelf components optimally engineered to create well-thought out systems to satisfy customer requirements. One recent example of a customized EVDrive-Train is the system engineered for a side by side a.k.a. UTV.  This EVDrive-Train demonstrated the AWD torque vectoring software platform hosted on our VCU and unique industry ability to perform “zero radius turns”  (See this video for more details).  Another an example, we discuss below our EVDrive technology testbed the BMW e46 conversion, which is a series plug-in hybrid architecture and includes a REX – range extender.  For this example, the EVD150, a 200HP sub-system is listed for module #1.  Any of the Drive System Modules listed here can be used for these EVDrive-train systems.

With a pure electric driving range of 100 miles, our BMW E46 3 series plug-in hybrid conversion technology testbed demonstrates the advantages of series hybrid electric drivetrain with improved performance and no compromises. Paired with this electric drive system is the on-board optimized ICE REX (Range Extender) that allows for continuous highway travel for up to 250 more miles of driving range using standard fuels – if original BMW fuel tank would be used, ~600 total mile range would be possible.

The no-compromise performance of the EVDrive-Train is the result of properly system engineered system with all sub-systems optimized where required, such as using high power density brushless IPM electric motor and world-class advanced controller designs at the heart of the drive system.  In simple terms, EVDrive VCU communicates with the state of the art electronic motor controller, taking the driver’s input (accelerator pedal or regenerative braking input) and produces a torque output or torque input respectively, as well monitoring all vehicle signals via CANbus.

#1 – DRIVE SUB-SYSTEM – This module or sub-system includes the drive motor, motor controller/inverter and gear reduction, either single speed or multiple speed dependent on specific application requirements.  All drive motor/controllers support regen braking/coasting putting energy back into the ESS and are from a few proven suppliers.  Most notably are the world-class Remy core rotor/stator for high performance applications (AF rotor/stators for budget conscious applications) and RMS controllers are all 100% sealed and liquid cooled.  The AMR series motors have built-in fluid pump/sump for cooling to keep the temperature uniform and regulated throughout vehicle operating acceleration range (Remy standard IPM motors do not have this feature).  The motor and controller can share the same fluid coolant loop, and because of the high efficiency of this motor and controller, they generate very little heat.  More information on the off-the-shelf Drive sub-system modules click here.  We do use in our projects for OEMs, many other motor/drive solutions that are not listed on this “off-the-shelf” webpage.  EVDrive is always looking for other component solutions for this module that answer challenging requirements some customers and applications demand.  Example units both gear and toothed belt custom designed and fabricated for OEM clients:  e-moto1 , e-utv1 ,

#3 – ENERGY STORAGE SUB-SYSTEM, or ESS (includes engineered enclosure, optional temp control, battery cells and management system – BMS) is designed custom for every application, for very high power delivery with minimal cell stresses that would otherwise shorten the life of the cells – this level of engineering is non-trivial.  EVDrive Lithium Ion cell packs can deliver far greater peak power than the full-performance motor can demand, making a recipe for long cell life and strong performance.  This module like most of those in our EVDrive-Trains, has many options both in battery cell choice, BMS, temp control, swap functions, etc., depending on application specifics and cost targets.  In most cases, custom shaped battery boxes are engineered to maximize available space on the donor vehicles in the desired mount location. Optional temp control is available as demonstrated on our e-BMW.  The latest revision of our top offering for the BMS, is a true ‘active’ non-dissipative system, however lower cost Passive BMS options are also available.  Various configurations of Fast Charging are also supported as well as our industry unique dual support  J1772 which allows one vehicle socket to support external DC Fast Charging and AC feed for powering on-board chargers.  EVDrive is one of only a handful of companies worldwide, that engineers custom battery packs of ANY SHAPE and size, using 3ah and greater energy storage capacity, 3.7v 18650 cells, similar as those used by Tesla uses in the Model S and it’s OEM battery packs.  Sample non-liquid-cooled cylindrical cell assembliespix1, pix2.  Example ESSs custom designed and fabricated for OEM clients:  ESS1 (Toyota LC truck), ESS2 (Toyota LC truck), ESS3 (e-Vette),  ESS4 (4x80kWh 320kWh, class 8 hybrid e-truck system).  We are always researching and testing other component solutions for this module/sub-system that answer challenging requirements some customers and applications demand.  Our latest gross performance figures for these ESSs in 3 general levels of price/performance are:    “BEST” level options, ~750Vdc, using copper interconnects dual chill/heat plate 3+ah (app-specific) 18650 cells, are coming in complete at industry leading energy density specs: ~9.6kWh/ft^3 and ~13.1lbs/kWh.  Compare to the others we offer and have provided clients based on Kokam or Enerdel pouches based ESS, considered our  “BETTER” ~3.51kWh/ft^3 and ~17.6lbs/kWh. Compare to complete Prismatic based ESSs, we call the “GOOD” option at ~4.7kWh/ft^3 and ~24lbs/kWh.

#2 – REx SUB-SYSTEM (Range Extender) for extended driving range, a custom designed fuel powered optimized engineered generator or genset (not like 60hz 110/240vac gensets) delivers the power levels needed for long range, full speed highway travel allowing our hybrid powered vehicles to match or exceed range of traditional ICE (internal combustion-engine) power vehicles.  This Range Extender, for example engineered for our PHEV-BMW e46 3-series, is compact enough to fit inside the spare wheel well, and our VCU/REX controller software in default, only automatically turns it on when a certain battery pack SOC (state of charge) is reached, and/or if perhaps the car is driven continuously beyond the full electric driving range.  Our software, through the VCU touchscreen interface, allows the driver to maintain lower or higher SOC depending on their driving trip planned. (See this video at 3:05 timecode for sample of one of our VCU implementations)  For past and current projects custom REX designs ranging from 7kW to over 350kW have been explored using rotary ICEs, dual turbo-charged diesels, micro/mini-turbines, etc.  Our AWD e-UTV technology demonstrator has been designed to accommodate a 15kW REX to allow it to match the range of leading ICE powered UTVS in it’s class. Example: e461

#4 VCU SUB-SYSTEM – EVDrive-Train™ Vehicle Control System (a.k.a. “VCU” for vehicle control unit) is a scale-able architecture which manages the vehicle drive system (OTS 3rd party units can also be integrated if desired), via included HMI Touchscreen, dual CANbus, charging, battery management, optionally interfaces with vehicle ECU, manages other optional modules such as engine sound synthesis and REX control as well as allowing OPTIONAL features such as telematic functions via a cell phone module for direct communication with vehicle for data logging/tracking/telemetry and control.  This gives 2-way communication with your vehicle allows for auto software updates, and other features such as, checking system error logs, diagnostics, charge status remotely or to see video from your vehicle for security purposes, as just a couple examples.  Advanced functions such as our Terra-Torque-Drive™ multi-modal torque vectoring demonstrated in our 2013 industry milestone e-UTV, are handled in this VCU module as well, allowing the control of multiple controller/ inverters/ motors for IWD (motor per wheel) drive-trains and supporting various add-on control functions, like stability and traction control.  See unique “Zero Radius Turns & Torque Vectoring in this video click here  Unlike competitor VCU controllers, EVDrive’s design supports custom re-sizing for only what is required, & in addition programming & volume production are relatively low-cost.  Example: VCU/HMI1 and see this video at 3:05 timecode for sample of one of our VCU implementations

#5 PDU SUB-SYSTEM – Main Contactor, more accurately known as the PDU – Power Distribution Unit, is the high power distribution and switching unit – properly designed these essential sub-systems are required for every EVDrive-Train – this module contains engineered, safe, high power distribution and fusing and required contactors per application requirements.  Application/budget dependent, this sub-system can also include recommended Isolation Monitoring option if not included in the ESS.  Example PDUs custom designed and fabricated for OEM clients: PDU1

#6 SUPPORT SUB-SYSTEMs – includes Accessories, also known as the Vehicle sub-system support  are another critical set of sub-systems required in every EVDrive-Train to support other vehicle sub-system needs including the all important cooling sub-system, DC-DC module to supply lower voltages from the high voltage ESS, and all electrical driven versions of required vehicle accessories and sub-systems, e.g. electrical, braking, steering, vacuum, hydraulic, etc.  Examples: ESS Chiller custom designed and fabricated for OEM clients: ESS-Chiller1 ,  accessories_support1 , Custom high power HV to LV DC-DC1

#7 SOUND GENERATION SUB-SYSTEM – optional Sound Simulation required for specific OEM projects for safety and/or customer requirements – See this video at 4:43 timecode for sample of one of our sound synthesis sub-system implementations.

 

Capabilities Example

Our EVD150 version of our EVDrive-Train package, used both in the EVDrive daily driver e-carE46 EVDrive-train conversion technology testbed and the OEM Gitano displayed at SEMA 2011, delivers 200HP, perfect for most midsize vehicles conversions, matching or exceeding the performance of the original ICE powered vehicle.

Full power regenerative braking/coasting is part of every EVDrive-Train as well.   Harvesting the kinetic energy to stop/slow the vehicle has these benefits:

  • Returns the majority of stopping energy back into the battery pack
  • Harvest significant energy descending hills
  • With optional steering wheel mounted regen control, braking can be done with a finger rather than your leg.
  • Significantly reduces brake pad wear

New features are easily supported through our VCU architecture:  Preheating/Pre-cooling via cell phone before arriving to vehicle.  Also, the cabin can be heated or cooled without need for a running engine, making for an efficient “mobile office.”  V2G, wireless charging, etc. are also being explored depending on OEM customer needs.

 

 

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